Planning ideas for the impact of tax law changes in 2013

The only way that the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 provides relief to high income taxpayers is by ending uncertainty. The wait is over and we now know what we can for tax planning; guessing based on the last news from Washington is over.
So, what planning can you do? Start with reviewing all the changes below. Then consider how they apply to you and what you can affect to bear less of a tax burden in this or future years – see the “action” items below in each section.
**Payroll**
**Social Security:** The payroll tax holiday ended so that the Social Security tax rates have returned to 6.2% (up from 4.2%) for 2013 wages up to the taxable wage limit of $113,700.
**Action:** //not much to do on this one, because it ends a set maximum each year, unlike the Medicare tax below.//
**Health insurance funding via additional Medicare tax:** The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act adds a .9% tax applies to single individuals earning over $200,000 and married couples who earn over $250,000 and file jointly. This raises the rate from 1.45%, will rise to 2.35%. However, employers must withhold the Additional Medicare Tax from **all** workers, regardless of marital status, from wages exceeding $200,000.
Action: bunch income in one year (defer/accelerate if you can get below the range – see rates below).
**New Ordinary Income Tax Rate:**
For most individuals, the federal income tax rates for 2013 will be the same as last year: 10%, 15%, 25%, 28%, 33%, and 35%. However, the maximum rate for higher-income folks increases to 39.6% (up from 35%). This change only affects singles with adjusted gross income (AGI) above $400,000, married joint-filing couples with income above $450,000, heads of households with income above $425,000, and married individuals who file separate returns with income above $225,000.
**Action:** //bunch income into one year (defer/accelerate if you can get below the range – especially if you coordinate earned income with net realized gains). The goal is to shift income (and deductions, as discussed below) from one year to another so that the total tax for both years is less. This is easier for self-employed or owners of private companies, as they can shift income within reasonable limits. Also, with large portfolios, there is some ability to put net gains in one year rather than another. As stated below, you can move all dividend and taxable interest paying investments into qualified plans, keeping your asset allocation but lessening the tax burden.//
**New Long-Term Gains and Dividends Tax Rate:**
The tax rates on long-term capital gains and dividends are the same as last year for most taxpayers. However, the rate goes to 20% (up from 15%) for singles with AGI above $400,000, married joint-filing couples with income above $450,000, heads of households with AGI above $425,000, and married individuals who file separate returns with AGI above $225,000. When you add in the new 3.8% Medicare surtax, you get a combined rate of 23.8% on long-term gains and dividends.
**Action:** //Once again, shift net gains into one year and put dividend paying investments in qualified plans.//
**Stealth rate increases:**
**Personal and Dependent Exemption Deduction Phase-Out:** The 2009 phase-out rule for personal and dependent exemption deductions has been restored, so your personal and dependent exemption write-offs are reduced if not even completely eliminated. This phase-out starts at the following AGI thresholds: $250,000 for single filers, $300,000 for married joint-filing couples, $275,000 for heads of households, and $150,000 for married individuals who file separate returns.
**Itemized Deduction Phase-Out:** As above, the 2009 phase-out rule for itemized deductions has been restored, so you can potentially lose up to 80% of your write-offs for mortgage interest, state and local income and property taxes, and charitable contributions if your AGI exceeds the applicable threshold: $250,000 for single filers, $300,000 for married joint-filing couples, $275,000 for heads of households, or $150,000 for married individuals who file separate returns. The itemized deductions are reduced by 3% of the amount by which your AGI exceeds the threshold, up to a maximum of 80% of the total affected deductions.
**Medical Expenses:** The floor above which medical expenses can be deducted goes from 7.5% to 10%.
**Action:** //for each of these, try to move deductions into one year, and bunch income to another, so that the total tax for both years is less.//
**Alternative Minimum Tax Help**
The AMT “patch”, which prevented millions having this add-on tax, has higher exemptions and allows various personal tax credits. The new law makes the patch permanent, starting with 2012. The change will keep about 30 million households out of the AMT.
**Action:** you can identify which AMT items affect you and bunch them into one year, to save taxes on another.

//**Gift and Estate Tax Rules Made Permanent**//
For 2013 and beyond, the new law permanently installs a unified federal estate and gift tax exemption of $5 million (adjusted annually for inflation, making it $5,250,000 for 2013) and a 40% maximum tax rate (up from last year’s 35% rate). Also, you can still leave your unused estate and gift tax exemption to your surviving spouse (the “portable exemption”).
**Action:** //review your assets to see if you can gift any now, even if in a trust for future ownership change, and also check to see if any such gifts help on state estate taxes. You may want to consider a second-to-die policy in an irrevocable trust, if your assets will exceed the credits after gifts.//

**Other changes**
**Action:** //see if any apply, then shift income and deductions so you benefit from them.//
**American Opportunity Higher Education Tax Credit Extended:** The American Opportunity credit, providing up to $2,500 for up to four years of undergraduate education, was extended through 2017.
**Higher Education Tuition Deduction Extended:** While this deduction was set to expire at the end of 2011, the new law restores it for 2012 and 2013, allowing for as much as $4,000 or $2,000 for higher-income folks.
Option to Deduct State and Local Sales Taxes Extended*: This option also expired in 2011 but is restored for 2012 and 2013, giving taxpayers with little or no state income taxes the option to claim an itemized deduction for state and local sales taxes.
**Charitable Donations from IRAs Extended:** This option also expired in 2011 but is restored for 2012 and 2013, allowing IRA owners who had reach age 70½ to make charitable donations of up to $100,000 directly out of their IRAs. The donations count as IRA required minimum distributions.
For 2012, you can still act if you do so this month – it will be treated as a December 2012 transaction.
**$250 Deduction for K-12 Educators’ Expenses Extended:** Yet another deduction that expired in 2011 is restored for 2012 and 2013, allowing teachers and other K-12 educators a $250 “above the line deduction” for school-related expenses that they paid.
**$500 Energy-Efficient Home Improvement Credit Extended:** Finally, another credit that expired in 2011 is restored for 2012 and 2013, allowing taxpayers could claim a tax credit of up to $500 for certain energy-saving improvements to a principal residence.

The news may be too much, but there are financial matters to review, if you just set aside time

Many people react to the bombardment of news on the economy, the European debt issues, the presidential campaign and legislative gridlock by wanting to shut it all off! That is understandable, but not often the best solution

It is one matter to just not open investment statements; it is a wholly different matter to postpone addressing financial issues

So, while you may not want to review re-balancing of your investments to match your long-term allocation or hear about the dismal returns on bonds, there is more that you can still address

We have suggested a list at: finance health day your own financial planning focus

It is like a “mental health day” but for your personal finances.
After you look at the list, let me know what you think, what you decide to do,
and if we can help you or anyone you know accomplish what is needed now. Thank you,

Steven

Keeping perspective while the debt ceiling “crisis” continues ….

While Congress and the President continue the political battle on the “debt crisis,” here is more for proper perspective:

First, the yield on Treasuries if falling, not rising. If there were a serious issue about the US ability to repay, then US bonds would see high rates. That is, unlike Greece, which is in real trouble, or even Spain or Portugal, the US is still able to borrow at very favorable rates. So, the markets in general, up to this point, believe that the “crisis” has nothing to do with the economy or the strength of the US relative to other nations.

Second, the debt issues have come about after the extended bull market ended in 2008. That is, high stock values and prosperous markets yielded high tax revenues. With this, there were years of budget surpluses, even after tax cuts were enacted. But, post 2008, that has changed. The change in the economy and stock values, even with some markets approaching their 2008 high points, has led to much lower tax revenues.

Finally, from Floyd Norris in the New York Times, we have this summary:

“If rationality does prevail, the debt ceiling will be raised. For that matter, there is no good reason to have a debt ceiling other than to give politicians a chance to grandstand. The important decisions for Congress and the White House concern spending and taxing. Borrowing, or paying back debt as happened for a couple of years before the Bush tax cuts, is a result of the interplay of those decisions and the state of the economy.”
And
“There is a risk that many analysts now are making the opposite mistake. Deficits have skyrocketed in recent years for reasons that are clearly temporary, or that will be temporary if the economy recovers. In some of the debate, the short-term problems are mixed up with longer-term demographic concerns caused by the aging and retirement of the baby boomers and the rising costs of Medicare, the health insurance program for Americans over the age of 65.”

So, with fingers crossed for the prevailing of rationality soon, that is my update. Let me know if you have questions or comments

Financial impact of the budget plan and planning for tax reform

First, the on-going budget battle in Washington, or “the debt ceiling crisis,” should be kept in perspective. The battle is more a game of chicken, where one side will eventually blink and the ceiling increased. This political battle is not likely to have an impact on investments, as the markets have already accounted for the outcome, as usually happens well before the event. In fact, by way of example, this is much like 1989 when the municipal bonds of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts we downgraded to a rating just above that for Louisiana. Many investors panicked. However, the underlying economy had not changed. Therefore, the smart investment strategy at the time was to buy Massachusetts bonds. After Governor Weld came to office, the rating went back up and investors who held or bought the bonds had a nice profit. The equivalent today would be to buy treasuries.

Second, as it is shaping up, the deficit reduction package contains major tax reform provisions as well as huge spending cuts. This could ultimately be good for the economy and our markets, as it would bring corporate tax rates in line with other countries, falling in the 23 to 29% range. However, the base would be broadened, possibly including depreciation over longer periods, eliminating deductions for domestic production and trimming or dropping the R&D credit.
The tax overhaul raises substantial revenue, $1 trillion over 10 years. However, this less than half the amount that would have been raised by simply letting the Bush tax expire as scheduled.

New Tax Law: Many specifics will not be known until a new tax law is enacted, which is not likely to occur this year. What Kiplinger’s Tax Letter and others are predicting the following: Instead of six tax rates or brackets, with the highest at 35%, three are expected: one in the 8 to 12% range, the next in the 14 to 22% range, and the in the last in the 23 to 29% range. The Alternative Minimum Tax (“AMT”) would be repealed. The earned income credit and child credit would remain.

To do all this, there will be pain: itemized deductions would be significantly reformed, changing home interest and property tax deductions as well as charitable deductions. For example, deduction of interest might be limited to a mortgage of $500,000 used to purchase a home, but not any for a second home. In addition, the deduction of equity line of credit interest may be eliminated (no one knows what will be grandfathered, so better to have a line in place than to wait). Higher bracket taxpayers may see the deductions converted into a 12% credit.
Something of a surprise, given the push over the last ten years or more to increase personal savings, the deductions for retirement contributions may be cut back, lowering the ceiling and amount of the contributions that will be allowed for 401(k), IRA, Keogh, SEP-IRAs, profit-sharing plans and so on. Similarly, flex plan and health savings accounts may be curtailed or repealed.

We will continue to monitor the information on tax reform, and post updates when appropriate.

Any changes that are this sweeping will require serious tax planning, so that should be on your “to do” list for this fall!